Rassadina Tat'yana Anatol'evna, Doctor of sociological sciences, associate professor, professor at the sub-department of humanities and social subjects, Ulyanovsk Institute of Civil Aviation (8/8 Mozhayskogo street, Ulyanovsk, Russia), email@example.com
Background. The research subject is problem aspects of higher school functioning in modern Russia that can be defined as risks. Environmental conditions and the activity of actors associate with choosing an occupation, preparation and admission to a university; expansion of the institutional capacity of multiple choice of life strategies; emergence of new forms of rationality in the interaction of social subjects; new approaches to the methodology of higher education; bureaucratization of the educational process; some problems of the sociohumanitarian component of higher school, in technical (engineering) education particularly; emergence of ameliorative trends – all of these are considered as new manifestation of sociocultural regulating mechanisms creating risky conditions for modern people and the society.
Materials and methods. The theoretical and methodological basis included the works by Russian and foreign sociologists investigating various aspects of risk sociology, such as D. Bell, U. Beck, A. Giddens, M. Duglas, S. Lush, N. Luhmann, G. Ritzer; А. P. Algin, V. V. Vitlinsky, V. V. Grishaev, V. I. Zubkov, Y. А. Zubok, S. А. Kravchenko, S. А. Krasikov, А. V. Mozgovaya, S. М. Nikitin, N. L. Smakotina, К. A. Feofanov, О. N. Yanitskiy and others. The author used traditional research principles, approaches and methods, such as: system, postneoclassical approaches; the method of formal and logical analysis of notions, the comparative and analytical method. The empirical basis included a secondary analysis of sociological research results obtained by the following Russian experts in the field of higher education sociology: D. L. Konstantinovsky, G. А. Cherednichenko, F. А. Khokhlushkina, Е. S. Popova, А. L. Andreev, V. А. Prokhorov and others. The research takes into account sociocultural alteration trends under the influence of risk factors in modern Russia that have been revealed by the author in the course of her own empirical sociological research.
Results and conclusions. In the modern society it becomes more and more complicated for young people to stick to desired occupations and find their professional identity at the higher school. The choice of occupation to a great extent is substituted by the choice of further education, future way of life, but not professional dedication; it is largely based on preferences and to a lesser degree considers constaints of the ones choosing. The choice of occupation turns to be nonlinear, spontaneous, short-term, dynamic, highly rational, pragmatic; sometimes repeated and “post poned”. Professional training and consolidation on a certain major at a university feature deprofessionalization, there occurs a transfer for monoprofessionalism to polyprofessionalism; the idea of profession or occupation becomes fuzzy, so do the functions of its holder and personal traits; one may observe difficulties with professional identity formation; the attitude towards labor and profession becomes more and more resembling the attitude to tools. We evidence new forms of rationality developing in the relationships between educational subjects, simulating and gaming practices. The “presenting” paradigm supplants the “reading” one; informativity and fragmentariness of knowledge grow, as well as simplification and problems with knowledge system formation. We observe high bureaucratization of the educational process. The organization of sociohumanitarian knowledge features minimalistic trends. The technocratic value paradigm of education promotes emergence of ameliorative trends. These characteristics of modern highereducation in Russia are regarded as risks, which will soon bring anticipated and unforeseen consequences, in case they are not taken into consideration in the process of higher school organization and functioning at all levels (federal, regional, organizational levels).
risks, society of risks, risk in higher education, choice of occupation, new forms of rationality, system bureaucratization, sociohumanitarian education, ameliorism
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